Large-scale Moisture Exchange in the Tropical Atmosphere during the Extreme El Niño–Southern Oscillation Events

E. K. Semenov, V. S. Platonov, and E. V. Sokolikhina

The generalization of scenarios of the development of large-scale moisture exchange is carried out separately for the warm and cold phases of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event using the NCEP/NCAR and GPCP reanalysis data. Obtained are the composition models of the integral water vapor transport for the monsoon and trade-wind regions of the Pacific and Indian oceans. It is demonstrated that the monsoon circulation is suppressed during the El Niño and is replaced by the trade wind in the Indian Ocean and the trade wind is suppressed and replaced by the monsoon circulation in the Pacific Ocean. During the La Niña, the opposite picture is observed: the monsoon circulation intensifies in the Indian Ocean and the trade wind, in the Pacific Ocean. It is revealed that the South Pacific convergence zone is the main object of large-scale moisture exchange during ENSO: it moves unprecedentedly to the east of the Pacific Ocean during the warm phase and maximally approaches the northeast of Australia and Indonesia during the cold phase. The intensification of the convergence zone in the mentioned regions is accompanied by the active tropical cyclogenesis, intensive cloud formation, and heavy rains.

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